Welsh studies on Milling topics

Welsh studies on Milling topics

ab Owain, Steffan. Melinau Ŷd Cymru Fu. (2023): 77 pp. An introduction to corn mills and milling in Wales. Includes useful gazetteer of milling terms.

Barton, Peter. Melinau Cymru yn malu eto. Melin 15 (1999): 25-30.  An account of official efforts during World War 2 to bring rural mills back to working order to help feed the nation with particular reference to Merionethshire.

Beech, Gareth. An Introduction to Cider Making in Wales. Melin 23 (2007): 50-66.  An outline of the history of cider making in Wales, including description of the processes involved.

Clevely, Vic. Straining days are over. Country Quest (Sept. 1970):44-47. Picture feature: Rossett Mill and Llynon windmill.

Crankshaw, William P. Report on a Survey of the Welsh Textile Industry made on behalf of the University of Wales. Cardiff (1927) pp20 + 41 plates.

Coggins, Julie Ann. The Welsh woollen industry in the nineteenth and early twentieth century with specific reference to Tregwynt woollen mill. MA Thesis, Trinity Saint David (2011). See also Coggins, Julie Ann. The History of Tregwynt Woollen Mill, Pembrokeshire: Journal of the Pembrokeshire Historical Society, No.21 (2012) pp 28-34.

Crankshaw, William P. Report on a Survey of the Welsh Textile Industry. Melin31 (2015): 3-105. Reprint of a report published by the University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1927, focusing on the woollen mills still surviving in Wales at that time, together with a description of their machinery and products.

Davies, Alun E. Paper-mills and paper-makers in Wales, 1700-1900 . Journal of the National Library of Wales 15.1 (1967): 1-30.

Davies, Brian H. Scarlet – a red to dye for. Melin 23 (2007): 3-30.  An account of the development of methods for the red dyeing of wool in Wales between the fifteenth and twentieth centuries.

Davies, Branwen. Melinau Gwlân/Woollen Mills in Wales. Llandysul (2017): 190 pp. An overview of 12 of the remaining woollen mills still operating in Wales.

Davies, Ivor E. Bruising the gorse to feed the stock. Country Quest, (April 1984). Gorse mills.

Edwards, Huw Antur. Cynhyrchu Trydan yn Llanuwchllyn, 1910-2018. Melin 34 (2018): Power generation in Llauwchllyn, 1910-2018, using water turbines.

Edwards, Richard A. & Parkinson, Anthony. Waterpower on Every Farm. Melin 7 (1991): 19-26.  A short account of the Edwards family of Llanuwchllyn, Bala, millwrights and hydraulic engineers, including a 1922 booklet extolling the Pelton wheel as the ideal power source for every farm.

Evans, Peris Jones. Melinau. Welsh Office (1991) Educational resource for early-years secondary school pupils. General overview of mills, types, function, refs in literature etc.

Gwyn, David. Water power in the Gwynedd slate industry. Melin 21 (2005): 69-84. A description of the uses of water-power in the slate industry in Gwynedd from the late eighteenth century onwards.

Jack, Ian. Gazetteer of Welsh fulling mills.  Arch. Camb. (1981). Detailed entries on 206 fulling mills in Wales, late C13 – early C16.

Jack, R. Fulling mills in Wales and the March before 1547 . Archaeologia Cambrensis 130 (1981): 70-127. [*] The Cambrian Archaeological Association was founded in 1846

James, David W. Y bara gwyn . Country Quest, (June 1985): 39. A brief note on breads in the St Davids area in the 19th century.

Jenkins, J. Geraint. The Welsh Woollen Industry. Cardiff (1969).

Jenkins, J Geraint. The Flannel Makers: A Brief History of the Welsh Woollen Industry. Llanrwst: Gwasg Carreg Gwalch (2005). 96pp. ISBN 9780863819636.[*] Reviewed on www.gwales.com .

Jones, David H. Notes on the Welsh Miller’s Terminology. Melin 6 (1990): 11-14.  A list of Welsh terminology associated with milling and discussion of meaning and relevance to milling history.

Jones, M. J. The early history and development of the woollen industry in Wales. Melin 33 (2017): 33-44. Reprint of an article in ‘Centuries of Achievement in Wool’ produced by the Department of Education of the International Wool Secretariat in 1959.

Lile, Emma. The ‘Honest Millers of Welsh Traditional Song’. Melin 15 (1999): 3-15.  Discussion of songs and ballards relating to Welsh millers, including songs in Welsh with translations.

Lipton, O. W. The Welsh woollen textile industry. Melin 33 (2017): 45-58. Reprint of an article in ‘Warp and Weft’, produced by the Department of Education of the International Wool Secretariat circa. 1958.

Lloyd Hughes, D.G. Ffatrioedd Gwlân Llŷn. Llanw Llŷn, Rhifau 313-26 (Medi 2004 – Tachwedd 2005). Series of article on the woollen factories of the Llŷn peninsula.

Malaws, Brian A. A Quarry Rediscovered. Melin 6 (1990): 41-42.  Descriptions of the Millstone Bur(sic) Quarry above Conway in 1799 and 1990.

Malaws, Hilary and Mercer, Deborah. Woollen mills in Wales. Melin 39 (2023): 77-120. Edited transcript of notes compiled by the late Margaret Bide from late-1950s, describing woollen mills across Wales.

Martindale, J. G. The manufacture of woollen cloth. Melin 33 (2017): A general article describing the processes and machinery involved the production of woollen cloth. First published in Making Wool Fabrics by the Dept of Education of the International Wool Secretariat circa. 1959.

Mercer, Deborah. How the Decline of the Welsh woollen industry affected rural mills: A case study of Cellan Factory. Melin 37 (2021): 31-48.

Nash, Gerallt D. Clover and Clover Mills. Melin 6 (1990): 2-10.

Nash, Gerallt D. Gorse and Gorse Mills in Wales. Melin 19 (2003): 3-42.

Nash, Gerallt D. Gorse and Gorse Mills in Wales: Part 2. Melin 20 (2004): 29-35.

Nash, Gerallt D. Mill-related occupations in Wales: evidence from 19th century census returns. Melin 35 (2019): 3-17. Calculating the number of millers, millwrights etc. in Wales during the nineteenth century, based on census evidence.

Nash, Gerallt D. The Welsh Mills Society: looking back over the last (or first) 30 years – a personal view. Melin 29 (2013): 3-18. A personal account, by the current Chairman, of the establishment and history of the first thirty years of the Welsh Mills Society, based on his talk given at the thirtieth Annual General Meeting of the Society.

Nash, Gerallt D. Welsh corn mills – the past, present, … and future? The Welsh industrial heritage: a review. CBA Research Report 79 (1992): 125-130.

Nash, Gerallt D. Where have all the windmills gone? Country Quest, Vol 24, No. 4. (September 1983): 9-12. Windmills in Wales.

No name. Excerpts from The Welsh Woollen Industry – Chapter 6: The Welsh Woollen Industry Today. Melin 33 (2017): 59-63. Reprint of excerpts from a chapter on the (then) state of the Welsh Woollen Industry published by the Dept of Education of the International Wool Secretariat in ‘The Welsh Woollen Industry’ circa. 1959.

No name. Excerpts from The Welsh Woollen Industry – Chapter 7: Woollen Manufacturers in Wales. Melin 33 (2017): 65-68. Reprint of excerpts from a chapter in The Welsh Woollen Industry published by the Dept of Education of the International Wool Secretariat circa. 1959, listing woollen manufacturers in Wales.

Peate, Iorwerth C. Traethawd ar Felinyddiaeth. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies Vol. XIII, Pt IV, (May 1937): x and 296-301. Examination (in Welsh) of a ‘Treatise on Milling’ contained in Peniarth MS 56, pp 61-89, possibly dating to 1543; includes a transcript of the original text.

Peck, John. Cardigan foundries. Melin 35 (2019): 49-79. A detailed study of the foundries that were based in Cardigan, who operated them and when they were active – all produced waterwheels and/or mill-related machinery.

Peck, John. Felin Broyan and the mystery of the improved mill stone staff. Melin 30 (2014): 3-20. Circular slate millstone staff discovered in north Pembrokeshire.

Ridyard, Geoff. The Black Book of St Davids. Melin 16 (2000): 23-28.  An explanation of the Black Book of St. Davids, a survey of lands and rents and duties required of the tenants of the Lord Bishop carried out in 1326. A chart is included of all the mill-related duties tenants had to carry out at particular mills.

Roberts, Glyn. ‘Cymru Fu, Cymru Fydd ‘ – The history of the Caernarfon and Pwllheli Blankets. Melin 38 (2022): 3-18. English translation (by Sian Lewis) of article first published in Welsh in WMS Newsletter No. 148.

Skeel, C. A. J. The Welsh Woollen Industry in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Arch. Camb., Series 7, II (1922): 220 – 257.

Skeel, C. A. J. The Welsh Woollen Industry in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Arch. Camb., Series 7, IV (1924): 1 – 38.

Sykes, Marjorie. Miller’s pigs are fattest. Country Quest (June 1987): 26-27.

Taylor, Bryan S. Aberdulais Falls: A Site for Innovation. Melin 9 (1993): 21-29. An account of the historical development of the mills and forges at Aberdulais Falls from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries.

Taylor, Bryan. Wool and water. The Swansea History Journal – Minerva 15 (2007/8): 42-47. [*] (Royal Institution of South Wales)

Tucker, D. G. Millstone Making at Penallt, Monmouthshire. Industrial Archaeology Vol. 8 (1982): 229-39, 321-24. see also by same author: Millstone Quarries and Millstone-Makers. Post-Medieval Archaeology, Vol 2 (1977): 1-21

Ward, Owen. Welsh Millstones. Melin 6 (1990): 15-40.  Historical accounts and descriptions of Wesh millstone quarries.

Watts, Sue. The rotary quern in Wales: part one. Melin 12 (1996): 26-35.  Detailed archaeological study of early rotary querns (hand mills) from the first century and Roman period.

Watts, Sue. The rotary quern in Wales: part two. Melin 13 (1997): 47-54.  Detailed archaeological study of the development of rotary querns from the post Roman period to medieval times.

Wells, Terry. Paper making in West Wales. Carmarthenshire and Beyond: Studies in History and Archaeology in Memory of Terry James (ed. Heather James and Patricia Moore). Carms. Antiquarian Society (2009): 9-26.

Wiliam, Dafydd. Ritual Protection Marks within Welsh Mills. Melin 37 (2021): 3-21.

Wiliam, Dr Eurwyn. Presidential Address. Melin 21 (2005): 3-8.  Address given by Dr Eurwyn Wiliam, President of the Welsh Mills Society, during the Annual General Meeting and twenty-first birthday celebrations of the Society in 2005.

Williams, Gwynfor. Goleuni Trydanol Pwllglas. Fferm a Thyddyn 70 (Calan Gaeaf 2022). Article, in Welsh, on electric lighting at  Pwllglas, powered by a water turbine installed by Edwards of Llanuwchllyn.

Williams, Gwynfor. Waterpower on every farm: Edwards of Llanuwchllyn, millwright and hydro-electrical engineer. Melin 25 (2009): 27-36.

Williams, H. Maldwyn. The Woollen Industry in Wales. Wales and Monmouthshire, Vol i (1936-6): 12-14.

Williams, Siân. Mwy o fynd ar flawd y felin ddŵr. Golwg (Mai 7, 2020): 7. Article featuring Melin Llandudoch (St Dogmaels Mill), Pembrokeshire, and focusing on the increased demand for flour during the Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic.


Studies including references to Wales

Barton, P.G. William Hazledine, Miller, Millwright, Ironfounder and Entrepreneur. Melin 23 (2007): 30-49.  An account of the life and work of William Hazledine, one of the foremost entrepreneurs of the Industrial Revolution, with particular reference to his work in Wales.

Chapman, H. S. Beehive querns: technological marvels of the Iron Age. Country Quest (Feb 1990): 40-1. Short article which includes references to some quernstones found in Wales.

Davies, Gladys. Mills on the Morda. Country Quest (Jan 1988): Short note on mills on the R. Morda which rises near Llechrydau, Mont, and then flows NE into Shropshire.

Jones, David H. The far-flung Rhawlech. Melin 20 (2004): 53-56.  A report on the evidence for the use of the ‘rhawlech’ or flour scoop, originally thought exclusive to Wales, in Pennsylvania and Romania.

Kissock, Jonathan. Book Review (The archaeology of mills and milling, Martin Watts). Melin 18 (2002): 39-40.  Review of book published in 2002 describing the chronological development of mills in the British Isles from Roman to post-medieval times.

Miller, Edward (ed.). The Agrarian History of England and Wales – Volume 3 1348-1500 . Cambridge UP (1991). 1008pp (incl 40+pp detailed index). ISBN 9780521200745; ISBN 9780521200127 (pback, 2001). [*] Esp. chapter 9 Rural Building where 30pp covering Wales include sections on fulling and grinding mills.

Nield, Ted. A Legacy of Tidal Power. Country Quest (Jan 1986): 36. Harnessing tidal power, with reference to Carew tidal mill in Pembrokeshire.

Lucas, AdamEcclesiastical Lordship, Seigneurial Power and the Commercialization of Milling in Medieval England. Ashgate (2014).

Lucas, Adam. Wind, Water, Work: Ancient And Medieval Milling Technology.  Brill, Leiden (2006).

Wailes, Rex. The English Windmill. London: 2nd impression (1967, reprinted 1977). Refers to mills on Anglesey, and in Cardiganshire (now Ceredigion).

Ward, Owen. British Burrstones, 1799-1821. Melin 1 (1985).  An account of three Welsh and two Scottish millstone quarries who it was claimed produced wheat-grinding stones at least equal to French burr stones.